Educational: the subject in grammar

I started learning more about grammar of English, so want to share some educational materials with you.

The S is the principal part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the second principal part (the predicate) is dependent. It can denote a living being, a lifeless thing or an idea.
The ways of expressing the S: 1) A noun in the common case (The sun is shining); 2) A pronoun (personal, demonstrative, defining, indefinite, negative, possessive, interrogative) (Everyone is sitting), sometimes the pronouns "one, they, you, we" refer to people in general – in such cases an impersonal sentence is used in Russian; 3) A substantivized adjective or participle (The injured were taken to hospital); 4) A numeral (cardinal, ordinal) (The two were happy); 5) An infinitive, an infinitive phrase or construction (To work is a necessity); 6) A gerund, a gerundial phrase or construction (Studying is a must); 7) Any part of speech used as a quotation (Yes is the word I want to hear from her); 8) A syntactically indivisible group (Fish and chips is the most famous English dish); 9) A quotation group (And what does Mr.Know-It-All recommend?).

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